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Infrared Optical Material - Sapphire

Sapphire initially refers to gem varieties of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (Al2O3), when it is a color other than red. Nowadays, sapphire can be found naturally or manufactured in large crystal boules. Sapphire is highly transparent at wavelengths of 170 nm to 5.3 μm (ultraviolet to infrared), as well as being five times stronger than glass. This leads to use of synthetic sapphire windows in high pressure chambers for spectroscopy. The hardest of the oxide crystals, sapphire retains its high strength at high temperatures and has good thermal properties. It is well known for chemically resistant to common acids and alkali at temperatures up to 1000 °C as well as to HF below 300 °C.

Maximum available size for windows, lenses and blanks: 100 mm Dia x 10 mm Thk and 100 mm Square x 10 mm Thk.

Infrared Optical Material Infrared Optical Material
BASE PROPERTIES
PARAMETER VALUE
OPTICAL
Transmission Range 0.17 to 5.5 microns
Refractive Index 1.75449 (o) 1.74663 (e) at 1.06 microns
Reflection Loss 14% at 1.06 microns (2 surfaces)
Absorption Coefficient 0.3 x 10-3e cm-1 at 2.4μm
Restrahlen Peak 13.5μm
dN/dT 13.7 x 10-6e at 5.4μm
dN/dμ = 0 1.5μm
PHYSICAL
Density 3.97 g/cm3
Melting Point 2040°C
Thermal Conductivity 27.21 W/(m*K) at 300K
Thermal Expansion 5.6 (paral) & 5.0 (perp) x 10-6e/K *
Hardness Knoop 2000 with 2000g indenter
Specific Heat Capacity 419 J/(kg K)
Dielectric Constant 11.5 (paral) 9.4 (perp) at 1MHz
Young's Modulus (E) 335 GPa
Shear Modulus (G) 148.1 GPa
Bulk Modulus (K) 240 GPa
Elastic Coefficients C11=496 C12=164 C13=115 C33=498 C44=148
Apparent Elastic Limit 275 MPa (40,000 psi)
Poisson Ratio 0.25
CHEMICAL
Solubility 98x10-6 g/100g water
Molecular Weight 101.96
Class/Structure Trigonal (hex), R3c
REFRACTIVE INDEX
Wavelength, μm 0.308 0.325 0.337 0.351 0.355 0.442
Refractive Index (ne) 1.811 1.805 1.801 1.797 1.796 1.780
Refractive Index (no) 1.802 1.796 1.792 1.788 1.787 1.772
   
Wavelength, μm 0.458 0.488 0.55 0.532 0.590 0.633
Refractive Index (ne) 1.778 1.775 1.773 1.772 1.768 1.766
Refractive Index (no) 1.770 1.767 1.765 1.764 1.760 1.758
   
Wavelength, μm 0.670 0.694 0.775 0.780 0.800 0.820
Refractive Index (ne) 1.764 1.763 1.761 1.761 1.760 1.760
Refractive Index (no) 1.756 1.755 1.753 1.753 1.752 1.7528
 
Wavelength, μm 0.980 1.064 1.320 1.550 2.010 2.249
Refractive Index (ne) 1.756 1.754 1.750 1.746 1.737 1.732
Refractive Index (no) 1.748 1.747 1.742 1.738 1.729 1.724
   
Wavelength, μm 2.703 2.942 3.333 3.704 4.000 4.348
Refractive Index (ne) 1.719 1.712 1.701 1.687 1.674 1.658
Refractive Index (no) 1.711 1.704 1.693 1.699 1.666 1.65
 
Wavelength, μm 4.762 5.000 5.263      
Refractive Index (ne) 1.636 1.623 1.607      
Refractive Index (no) 1.628 1.615 1.599